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Neurotherapists: Stop shouldering the blame. It’s time to rethink electrode placement for treating subluxation.

Henry Hoffman
Thursday, April 28th, 2022


Shoulder subluxation, defined as a partial or incomplete dislocation that usually stems from changes in the mechanical integrity of the joint (muscles, tendons, ligaments) is a common issue with hemiplegic stroke survivors. There are several protocols for treating subluxation, such as electrical stimulation, but it’s often done improperly due to misconceptions about what’s considered “standard practice.” 

Studies suggest that the supraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles are the primary muscles to target when using electrical stimulation. Contrary to popular belief, this may not be the case. This blog aims to revisit what we already know about subluxation and proximal migration and challenge traditional beliefs many of us have embraced throughout our careers. 

Let’s dive into when to use electrical stimulation and what the optimal muscles are for targeting. 

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Reclaim Your Reach With Shoulder Exercises For Stroke Recovery

Henry Hoffman
Monday, January 15th, 2018
Last modified on October 6th, 2022


Recovering your arm and shoulder movement after a stroke can be challenging. If you can’t easily grasp and release objects, move your arms forward, or use your arms to support your weight or you’re just starting your recovery with a Saebo solution, it’s important to incorporate helpful shoulder exercises for stroke recovery into your daily routine at home.

And that’s exactly what Occupational Therapist Hoang Tran recommends. Hoang focuses on shoulder and arm mobility at her outpatient rehabilitation center, Hands-on Therapy. She opened the Florida center in 2014 after extensive clinical experience, including more than a decade at Miami Beach’s Mount Sinai Medical Center. As a Certified Hand Therapist (CHT) she specializes in pathological conditions affecting the upper extremities. Throughout her years of working with stroke survivors and other people with upper body trauma, she has learned several simple and effective techniques that you can apply in your own home to speed up your recovery.

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The Importance of Dynamic Arm Support in Stroke Rehabilitation

Henry Hoffman
Tuesday, June 6th, 2017
Last modified on September 2nd, 2022


Following a neurological or orthopedic injury, it is common for patients to experience impaired arm and hand function resulting in decreased strength, coordination, and range of motion. Patients are often unable to support their own arms or move their arms in order to perform exercises necessary for proper recovery.

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Tried and True Solutions For Stroke Pain Management

Henry Hoffman
Thursday, August 18th, 2016
Last modified on September 2nd, 2022


Tried and True Solutions For Stroke Pain Management-blog

After stroke, loss of mobility isn’t the only long-term problem that prevents survivors from resuming normal activities. Post-stroke pain affects more than half of all stroke survivors. In some cases, this pain is chronic, leaving survivors with constant discomfort and hypersensitivity. Let’s walk through the common types of pain that stroke survivors experience, and introduce the tools and therapeutic techniques that were designed to reduce it and restore mobility.

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Clinical Examination of the Painful Hemiplegic Shoulder

Henry Hoffman
Thursday, August 20th, 2015
Last modified on October 11th, 2019


Successful clinical outcomes are typically the result of the therapist’s ability to perform a thorough and accurate examination. In order to diagnose and prescribe lesion specific treatment, a clinician must not only be knowledgeable with the musculoskeletal system and how to systematically examine the affected joint, but feel confident with interpreting the results. Without an accurate assessment using proven orthopedic-based diagnostic techniques, pain and disability can persist unnecessarily for months or years. In a previous article, we looked at the biomechanics, pathoanatomy and pathomechanics of the hemiplegic shoulder. Today, I would like to continue this series by reviewing the clinical examination of the painful neurological shoulder.

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De-icing the Mystery Behind Hemiplegic Frozen Shoulder

Henry Hoffman
Wednesday, January 21st, 2015
Last modified on May 15th, 2020


If you have attended a Saebo course in the past, you most likely have heard the comment “it is the hand that guides the arm”. Although this is theoretically true when discussing the importance of incorporating one’s hand functionally, broadly speaking however, we should avoid providing too much importance to the hand as it is only one element of the interdependent kinetic chain. Yes, the hand mainly guides the arm to interact and problem-solve the environment, however, if pain and limited motion exists proximally (i.e., shoulder), function will be compromised regardless of the hand’s ability to participate.

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An Orthopedic Approach to the Hemiparetic Upper Limb: Understanding the Biomechanics and Pathoanatomy of the Shoulder.

Henry Hoffman
Friday, November 28th, 2014
Last modified on September 2nd, 2022


Before I co-founded Saebo, I was a practicing occupational therapist specializing in non-operative orthopedic medicine and manual therapy of the upper quadrant. While working at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital in White Plains, NY, part of my caseload was dedicated to orthopedic rehabilitation including the treatment of overhead athletes. Through the International Academy of Orthopedic Medicine (IAOM), I received my post-professional education training on diagnosis specific musculoskeletal management.

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